Understanding what our material world is made of has been an ultimate question for humankind for as long as our existence. Yet modern science and technology have enabled us to “see” objects at vastly different scales, from stars in distant galaxies to atomic particles, the fundamental origin of these matter and their strong interactions are far from understood. One of the most intriguing questions, the color confinement, is of particular interest, where quarks and gluons are forever clumped in the form of hadrons.
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The Standard Model of particle physics describes fundamental forces in the universe – electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. The strong interactions between quarks and gluons via color charges is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). High-energy particle accelerators enable precision studies of the Standard Model and beyond and, in particular, answering fundamental open questions in QCD, concerning the processes underlying complex particle formation and the nature of emergent QCD. Hadrons are composite color neutral states that comprise much of the visible world around us.
In ultrarelativistic collisions of heavy nuclei, such as those which take place in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the resulting state is so hot and dense that normal matter melts into its constituent parts, and quarks and gluons are no longer confined into hadrons. Known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), this matter occupies the high-temperature and high-density regime of the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
The theory of the strong nuclear force - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - describes the interactions between fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons. In this talk, I will explain how the strong nature of the QCD interaction results in phenomena having unique and intriguing properties. One such example is the creation of a hot, dense form of matter that behaves like a ‘perfect liquid,’ known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), in collisions of high-energy nuclei. Another QCD phenomenon is the fragmentation of high-momentum quarks and gluons into streams of particles known as jets.
The smallest building blocks of matter, quarks and gluons (partons), are usually confined inside protons and neutrons (hadrons). At very high energies and temperatures, the partons become deconfined or “free”, forming a novel state of matter called the Quark-Gluon plasma (QGP). The QGP is produced at high-energy colliders by smashing together heavy ions and is found to be a nearly perfect fluid, but precise knowledge of its intrinsic properties is required. Jets are ideal probes of the QGP.
The Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment (MicroBooNE) is a leading large-scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment, designed for precision neutrino physics. The main scientific objectives of MicroBooNE include the investigation of the Low Energy Excess (LEE) observed by the MiniBooNE Experiment between 2002-2019 in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, the measurements of neutrino-argon interactions, and the research and development of LArTPC technology. This thesis focuses on understanding the MiniBooNE LEE through charged-current electron neutrino interactions.
The Wright Lab community is invited to join former Wright Lab Artist-in-Residence Emily Coates to screen the film “Invisible Universe,” which was developed during her residency at Wright Lab.
Extracting cosmological 21 cm emission from the radio foregrounds which dominate requires precision calibration, including sub-percent measurements of the complex instrument beam. 21 cm cosmology experiments are typically driven to be compact transit interferometers with poor point-source sensitivity, and have found it difficult to constrain the beam shape to this precision with sky data alone. A technique that has been developed and demonstrated by multiple groups to address this is to transmit a calibrated RF signal from a drone into the telescope to measure the beam pattern.
Understanding the detailed structure of energy flow within jets, a field known as jet substructure, plays a central role in searches for new physics, and precision studies of QCD. In this talk, I will discuss how reformulating jet susbtructure in terms of correlations of energy flow can be used to provide new insights into hadronization and intrinsic mass effects before confinement. In particular, I will show how energy correlators manifest the long-sought-after “dead-cone” effect of fundamental QCD.