Neutrinos

  • Acronym: Argon Neutrino Test (ArgoNeuT)

    ArgoNeuT is a 170 liter liquid argon time projection chamber designed to collect neutrino interactions from the NuMI beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. ArgoNeuT operated in the NuMI low-energy beam line directly upstream of the MINOS Near Detector from September 2009 to February 2010, during which thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events were collected. ArgoNeuT was the first LArTPC operating in a low energy neutrino and antineutrino beam, the region of interest for current short-baseline and future long-baseline experiments. Its primary goal was to serve as technology demonstrator, but indeed ArgoNeuT has provided a wealth of physics results on neutrino interaction mechanisms, and is still yielding new intriguing outputs from the on-going studies. The Yale team played a leading role in project and the group is currently working on some analyses, such as studies of electron gamma separation, measurement of the electron neutrino charge current inclusive cross section and studies of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interaction in LAr-TPCs.     (click on image to enlarge)

  • Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE)

    CUORE is a tightly packed array of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated at 10 mK to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and to measure the mass of the neutrino. Neutrinoless double beta decay is a yet unobserved process. It can only occur if neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The Cryogenic Underground Observabory for Rare Events is located in the Gran Sasso National Underground Laboratory in Italy. The main goal of the experiment is to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 130Te. With CUORE, we can also look for dark matter and other rare, low-energy event. Our group is developing a novel calibration system for the energy calibration of individual bolometers with radioactive sources at 10 mK and involved the analysis of data from CUORE-0 and CUORE. (click on image to enlarge)

  • Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment (Daya Bay)

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is a US-China-Russia collaboration to search for and measure the yet unknown neutrino mixing angle theta13. The experiment is located at the Daya Bay nuclear power plant near Hong Kong, China. Data taking will start in Spring 2011. Our group has overall responsibility in the US for the design and construction of the antineutrino detectors. Together with the University of Wisconsin Physical Sciences Laboratory we oversaw the assembly and installation of the antineutrino detectors at Daya Bay. Our group is now involved in the oscillation analysis and in the measurement of the reactor flux and spectrum. (click on image to enlarge)

  • Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO)

    EXO is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe using large liquid xenon time projection chambers.  The current experiment, EXO-200, is operating at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM.  The Yale group is working on both analysis of EXO-200 data as well as R&D for the next-generation, multi-ton nEXO experiment.

  • A High-Energy Neutrino Telescope (IceCube)

    The IceCube Neutrino Detector is a neutrino telescope that finished construction in February 2011 at the South Pole. IceCube uses deep Antarctic iceinstrumented with 5160 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) at depths between 1,450 and 2,450 meters. The main goal of the experiment is to detect neutrinos in the high energy range, spanning from 1011 eV to about 1021 eV. Prof. Maruyama’s focus is in the low energies. IceCube can also detect 10 MeV neutrinos coming from nearby supernovae, from those, we can study how supernovae explode as well as fundamental properties of neutrinos (theta-13, mass hierarchy, etc.) With the addition of DeepCore, we can study ~100 GeV neutrinos to study atmospheric neutrino oscillation and dark matter collected in the Sun, Earth, and the Galactic Center. (click on image to enlarge)

  • Liquid Argon Near Detector of the Short-Baseline Neutrino Program (LAr1-ND)

    LAr1-ND is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) based experiment which will operate in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, at a distance of 110m from the target. The 112 t active volume detector will make precision measurements of the neutrino interaction cross section in argon, as well as forming the near detector for the short-baseline neutrino (SBN) program at Fermilab. In combination with the MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600 detectors, this experiment provides a powerful opportunity to understand observed neutrino anomalies, and has the potential to make precision measurements of oscillations to sterile states. The Yale group is co-founder of the LAr1-ND experiment and is currently involved in studies of the sensitivity of the SBN program and in the design of the LAr1-ND detector. The TPC field shaping system, the high Voltage feedthrough and part of the scintillation light collection system will be build at Yale. (click on image to enlarge)

  • LArIAT

    LArIAT is a test beam experiment designed to inform on the interaction processes on Ar of charged particles, of known type and sign, with energies in the same range — 0.2 to 2.0 GeV — as emerging from neutrino interactions at the Short- and Long- Baseline experiments. To make this possible, a new dedicated beam line has been set-up at the Fermilab TestBeam Facility, a series of beam counters along the beam line provides momentum, sign and ID of the test beam particles that reach the LArIAT  TPC active volume. The LArTPC, a 47w X 40 h X 90 l  cm3 active detector (240 kg), is contained in a 550 lt cryostat, the three wire planes of the TPC are equipped with state-of-the-art low noise cold electronics.  An innovative scintillation light collection system, conceptually similar to those developed for DM search, completes the detector layout. (click on image to enlarge)

  • Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment (MicroBooNE)

    MicroBooNE is a short baseline accelerator neutrino oscillation experiment designed to address the low energy excess observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, perform a unique set of low energy neutrino cross section measurements, and conduct R\&D towards development of massive LArTPC detectors for CP Violation physics.  MicroBooNE is a small scale, $20M experiment nearing the beginning of data taking in late 2015, with beam delivery of 6.5E20 protons on target (pot) over 2-3 years of data taking beyond this. On MicroBooNE, Yale's roles include fabrication and assembly of the TPC and DAQ systems, development of the Analysis Techniques and Tools necessary to analyze the data, and oversight of the collaboration. The main hardware contribution to MicroBooNE from the Yale group is the construction of the TPC for the experiment, funded through an NSF MRI.  This is the heart of the detection system.  Bonnie Fleming was the founding Scientific Spokesperson for the experiment and continues to serve as Scientific Co-Spokesperson (click on image to enlarge)

  • Project8

    The Project 8 experiment, located at the University of Washington in Seattle, is a precision electron spectrometer with sensitivity to cyclotron emission from single keV electrons by way of CRES (Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy).  The goal of the experiment is to measure the end point of the beta decay spectrum from tritium with sub-eV resolution, and thereby constrain the effective mass of the electron neutrino.  The keV electrons are trapped magnetically in their source region to lengthen the time they can be measured with a heterodyne receiver.   Here at Yale we are collaborating with Project 8 on a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the CRES experiment to understand and optimize the energy resolution of the detected electrons.  We also support the digitization and ongoing development of algorithms in the data analysis. (click on image to enlarge)

  • Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT)

    Previous measurements of the reactor neutrino flux suggest a deficit in the observed number of reactor antineutrinos. This could be due to new physics such as as sterile neutrinos or reveal a lack of understanding of reactor neutrinos. We are currently developing a new experiment located at very short baselines near a research reactor to make a precision measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum. (click on image to enlarge)